Il Giardino

After lunching in the beautiful town of Seggiano, we just had to visit nearby Il Giardino di Daniel Spoerri. The Swiss artist created the sculpture park in the early 1990s and it opened to the public in 1997. Set among 16 hectares of rolling Tuscan countryside,

there are now 113 installations scattered seemingly at random. Even with map in hand, I think we missed quite a few. There are too many works to cover in one post, with 54 different artists represented, so I will firstly cover those by Daniel Spoerri himself. The adventure begins as soon as we leave the ticket office

with an oversized cup atop an antique capital standing on the lawn.

The Cup

A baking oven has been constructed in the style of a Trulli, a traditional dry stone hut from the Puglia region of Italy. Five smoke stacks, modelled on a family of tailors dummies, have been added so when the oven is in use, fine smoke flows from the heads.

Trullo – Smoke is Coming From My Head

Daniel Spoerri is best known for his snare-pictures, a process where a group of objects, such as the remains of a meal along with the table setting, are fixed as they are and transformed from a horizontal plane to a vertical one. There are two snare-pictures cast in bronze at the garden. Luncheon Table in All Eternity is suspended on the exterior wall of the restaurant, Non Solo Eat Art, while Eternal Breakfast, complete with bread and eggs, complements it on the adjacent wall of the estate villa.

Many of the sculptures feature ordinary objects used in unconventional ways. Remnants from a foundry form the face of The Bersagliera, a sharpshooter who seems to have received a few shots herself, awaiting visitors outside the restaurant.

A Flower Bouquet made from mirrors, a variety of rods and a chestnut roasting pan is arranged in a flattened bucket.

The artist was invited by Acquedotto Santa Fiora to create a Golem, a human-like being from Jewish folklore usually made from clay. They gave him parts of water supply systems including old pumps, valves and sieves and Acqua Golem was born.

One of the first installations in the garden, Unicorns – Navel of the World, is on the site where, according to legend, the village of Seggiano once stood. There is now a spectacular view of the town on the opposite hill. The long horns protrude from horses skulls and are held by gloves like lances leaning towards the centre of the circle.

The inspiration for Damocles’ Rose Bower Walk came from a trip to England where Spoerri sketched a pergola comprising a row of interwoven sickles. Roses and Jasmine will eventually grow over the framework.

Marble slabs depicting the last meals of twelve famous women are mounted on a wall, an unusual monument to Marie Antoinette, Hannah Arendt, Hildegard von Bingen, Tanja Blixen, Madame Curie, Marlene Dietrich, Isadora Duncan, Mata Hari, Frida Kahlo, Cleopatra, Empress Elisabeth of Austria and the goddess Leda.

Eight gaunt Nightmares appear from the shadows and I am pleased to say I have never encountered anything like these in my sleep.

The scary theme continues with the four bronze cast skulls guarding Gorilla Bridge

and the macabre totem of Skull Tree.

The title of You white? You black? comes from the merging of two figures where the African and European heads have been switched.

In a shady, wooded area, a Marble Table is set with movable pieces that are work samples from a studio in Carrara. The table is supported by cast bronze scraps rather than ordinary table legs.

Next to the table, a twisting column holds up a small golden head which appears to grow out of a flower bud. Renaissance is dedicated to the Sicilian town of Gibellina which was destroyed in an earthquake in 1968.

At the rear of the restaurant there appears to be a pile of old slippers, the kind that are made of felt and handed out at palace tours to protect the floors. No entry without slippers pays homage to artist Joseph Beuys who frequently used felt in his work.

The villa, where Daniel Spoerri lived for a long time, has been divided into four spacious holiday apartments all with fabulous views of the garden.

The Chain Heap is just that. Spoerri saw the mass of iron chains hanging in an Italian scrap merchant yard and had them transported to the garden where he augmented the collection. The result is reminiscent of a chieftain or medicine man decorated with fetishes.

Something you don’t expect to find in a sculpture garden is a meatgrinder, however, Spoerri finds the diversity of form of this piece of kitchen equipment astounding and intriguing. The 3 metre high Meatgrinder Fountain was sans water on this day but I imagine it would be quite a spectacle.

The same kitchen appliance has been combined with hat models for Warriors of the Night, a small battle-scarred army rising up from a pond.

Five life size mannequins lie distorted in a ditch, reminiscent of mass gravesites as humans destroy other humans. The Mass Grave of the Clones isn’t exactly uplifting, though, as the artist explains,
“Over and over again, the Giardino shows us dark sides, for without these there could be no beauty”.

The Labyrinthine Wall Path is based on a pre-Columbian Neolithic cave drawing, altered slightly to create a labyrinthine form, it was then ‘drawn’ on the meadow using a low wall. The cosmic union of Mother Earth and Father Son is symbolised by representation of a hermaphroditic creature with a phallus and breasts.

Tintin-Elefant is so named due to its similarity to the spherically headed hero of the Belgian comic series Tintin by Hergé. Obviously, the hoseline nose contributes to the second half of the title.

When Spoerri’s good friend Roland Topor died in 1997, he felt there should be something to memorialise him at the garden. Topor was a satirist and illustrator and so Spoerri selected a drawing from which to create the sculpture that is The Eccentric Reader.

Skull Chapel verified Spoerri’s fascination with the cadaver’s cranium. The collection housed in the chapel includes Tibetan monks’ skulls, two mummies’ heads and monkey skulls.

There are so many more incredible sculptures at Il Giardino, they will be featured in a later instalment.

Hamilton Gardens – Fantasy

Having explored the Hamilton Gardens Paradise Collection, we moved on to the Fantasy Collection where imagination and fantasy are integral to the garden design. Three of these are found along paths leading from Time Court. Bronze characters from Alice in Wonderland are assembled atop a plinth, a plaque quotes: “If you don’t know where you are going, any road will take you there. Lewis Carroll.”

We entered the Surrealist Garden along a disconcerting black & white tiled passageway that led to a fireplace with nothing on the mantlepiece except a pair of egg shaped ornaments.

Surrealist art came to the fore in the 1920s and 30s when artists and writers became fascinated with the mysterious world of dreams and the subconscious mind. In garden design, this was illustrated through distortion of scale, strange forms of topiary & sculptures and elements behaving in an unexpected manner.

Everything in this garden is five times the normal scale

and the lawn edging curves up at the corners like a sheet of paper.

Instead of a dozen white roses, a dozen white noses are dotted throughout the thick foliage bordering the lawn.

I thought I was seeing thing when I saw the ‘branches’ of these trees moving. The ivy covered shapes, known as ‘trons’, appear slightly sinister as their hydraulically controlled arms move when least expected.

The Tudor Garden reflects the fascination 16th century English aristocracy had with geometric patterns and symbolism. A stone pavilion, based on the one at Montacute House in Somerset, overlooks intricate knot gardens that were traditionally outdoor settings for fantasy plays or ‘masques’.

Mythical beasts on green and white striped poles each hold a flag of the Tudor Rose as well as a sculptural crest of some of the notorious personalities of the day. Although some of the shields can’t be seen from the angle of the photo, royalty are represented by the unicorn (Mary, Queen of Scots), the griffin (King Henry VIII) and the dragon (Queen Elizabeth I).

Lord Chancellors of the aforementioned royalty make an appearance with the Centaur (Sir Thomas More) and Satyr (Sir Francis Bacon).

Two favourites of Queen Elizabeth I, both described as a ‘privateer’, are upheld by the sea serpent (Sir Walter Raleigh) and the Phoenix (Sir Francis Drake). The most endearing is the lovable Bottom from Midsummer Night’s Dream holding the shield of Sir William Shakespeare.

Chinese and Japanese imports flowed into Europe in the 18th century and created a fashion craze that became known as ‘Chinoiserie’. Garden design became an expression of the Western fantasy of Oriental art. This Chinoiserie Garden is quite simple. Once through the Bottle Gate and along the path to the Perfume Garden,

there are Chinoiserie seats and a Chinese Pavilion overlooking a sweeping lawn.

The pavilion is modelled on the ‘Chinese House’ at Stowe Landscape Gardens in England which was built in 1738. Like the original, the roof is copper and the colourful decoration gives it a theatrical touch.

Planting in the Tropical Garden has been designed so that the hardier plants offer protection to those more susceptible to Waikato winters. Exotic plants such as bromeliads and orchids sprinkle colour amongst the lush greenery and a trickling stream adds to the tranquil tropical atmosphere.

The next three Fantasy gardens led from Braithwaite Court where a Huddleston airship, full of gardening gadgets, is tethered. The airship is more than ornamental, it glides through the night delivering plants and pruning hard-to-reach hedges.

Essentially a form of outdoor conceptual art, the Concept Garden has been inspired by the square boxes of a legend on a map. Nine types of New Zealand landscape are symbolised in the blocks; pasture is represented by the grass, native bush by Muehlenbeckia astonii, urban areas by White Carpet roses, horticultural by citrus trees, tussock grassland by Carex buchananii, coniferous forest by Pinus mugo, scrubland by Leptospermum scoparium, wetland by Apodasmia and water bodies by the central pool.

Two Māori whakataukī, or proverbs, appear in the garden. He peke tangata, apa he peke titoki, is inscribed on the white wall, meaning ‘the human family lives on while the branch of the titoki falls and decays’. Perhaps a suggestion that as the population grows, it is at the expense of natural environments. The other whakataukī is inscribed on a steel pipe, which will gradually rust away; the interpretation of this message is, ‘but in the end, nature is going to win’.

A change in attitude toward the formality of garden design came about with the Picturesque Garden movement in England during the 18th century. Gardens retained a natural look, some deliberately wild and overgrown, and often had a sequence of features representing a fantasy story or classical legend. The Picturesque Garden at Hamilton makes reference to the story of The Magic Flute, written by Mozart in 1791, along with Masonic symbolism found in the story. We entered through a cave guarded by a pair of sphinxes

and passed the figure of Papageno

before reaching the Woodland Temple of the Queen of the Night.

The number three is significant to the Freemasons, as evinced by the three guardian angels, three portals to enter the temple and, through the dark passage, three temptresses represented in relief sculpture on the wall.

A table of food and wine awaited in a meadow

and the entrance to the cave where Tamino faced his last test is flanked by a brazier and bowl, symbolising fire and water. Opening a door at the end of the path, we wondered what could possibly top that experience.

We weren’t disappointed. One of the foremost pioneers in modern literature, New Zealand born Katherine Mansfield wrote her short story, The Garden Party in 1922. Inspired by an event that took place in Wellington in 1907, the architecture, food and design detail of the Edwardian period has been recreated in the Mansfield Garden. Circular gravel driveways with a pond or fountain in the centre were a common theme

and the Model T Ford was a status symbol of the time.

The lawn tennis court is the setting of the party

and workmen erected a marquee against the karaka hedge, specifically mentioned in the story, on the far side of the court.

The banquet table is laden with mouth-watering fare. Fifteen kinds of sandwiches with the crusts cut off are suggested in the story, although only two were specified; cream cheese with lemon curd and egg & olive. ‘Godber’s famous cream puffs’ were also on the menu, a nod to James Godber, a very successful baker, confectioner and caterer in Wellington at the turn of the century. The delectable spread is actually made from concrete and resin to withstand the elements.

Yet another detail from the story is the placement of the ‘very small band’ in another corner of the tennis court.

Having read Katherine Mansfield’s short stories since our trip, this fantasy garden lacked nothing. Sadly, she died with tuberculosis in 1923 at the age of 34.

nice natiche

It is no secret that Italy is home to some of the most impressive classical statues in the world. The Piazza della Signoria in Florence has an abundance of marble crafted male genitalia, all notably underendowed (I will get to the reason for that shortly). In my opinion, the true forte of the 16th century sculptors was fashioning a fine set of buttocks. Florentine artist Baccio Bandinelli excelled himself with the spectacular derrière of Hercules, poised to slay Cacus for stealing his cattle.

The work was commissioned to stand to the right of the entrance of the Palazzo Vecchio, to balance Michelangelo’s David on the left. At around five metres tall, they are both rather imposing figures, although David is probably more widely known. Many aspersions have been cast on the size of David’s appendage and much has been written on the subject. Historians have reasoned that large penises were associated with unappealing characteristics such as foolishness, lust and ugliness, whereas a small member belonged to a rational, intellectual and authoritative man. In 2005, two Florentine doctors argued another theory that the impending fight with Goliath has caused some shrinkage due to fear. The reasoning is irrelevant, the point is, David’s real assets are viewed from behind.

There is a young man on the left of the doorway to the Palazzo Vecchio sporting a modestly poised fig leaf but he doesn’t rate a mention in any literature I could find. He may represent Adam and, although he is smaller in stature than Hercules and David, he too has a pleasing posterior.

Across from the palazzo in the Loggia di Lanzi, Flemish sculptor, Giambologna, has continued the custom with his work, The Rape of the Sabine Women (I must clarify, at that time the term ‘rape’ referred to abduction or kidnapping not sexual assault).

There are many more superb examples in the Piazza della Signoria although I wasn’t really aware of it at the time, I shall have to return for more extensive research. At Villa Reale di Marlia, the adolescent god Apollino presented a youthful rear

but this one had seen better days. Perhaps the marble will shine again with a good clean.

It seems it wasn’t only human bottoms that were given such attention to detail as we found at the Colosseum.

Bomarzo Garden

I had read about the Parco di Mostri in Bomarzo before going to Italy and it sounded fascinating. The Park of Monsters is the creation of Prince Pier Francesco Orsini who, although living in a rather fabulous palace, had his share of bad luck. In 1552, he returned from a war in which his friend had been killed and he was taken prisoner and his thoughts turned to planning a special garden. Five years later, his beloved wife, Giulia Farnese Orsini, died. As an outlet for his sorrow, he pushed ahead with the project and for more than thirty years dedicated his life to finishing the garden. In 1579, he noted in his diary: “I can find relief only in my beloved forest, and I bless the money I have spent and still spend on this magic area”.

Six years later, Orsini died at the age of 62. Sadly, after his death, the garden was abandoned and swallowed up by the forest until 1951 when an estate agent, Giancarlo Bettini, stumbled across the hidden monsters when looking for land to buy. He bought the whole lot and proceeded to restore the garden for its intended purpose. A short stroll from the ticket office

we come to the entrance.

A pair of sphinxes await and each plinth bears an inscription; “He who does not go there with eyes wide open and lips sealed will not be able to admire the most wonderful marvels” and “You who enter here put your mind to it part by part and tell me if some many marvels were made by deceit or by design”.

A series of heads depicting the Gods are scattered around, peering from shrubbery when you least expect it.

Proteus Glaucus represents the Greek God of the Sea, Proteus, and Glaucus, the fisherman who became a Sea God after eating a magical herb. The globe and castle atop the head are symbols of the Orsini family.

The ruined mausoleum is intentionally half destroyed and fallen over and we passed an intriguing gate in a stone wall.

Hercules and Cacus are embroiled in a very one-sided fight.

Nearby, a stream soothes the tension as it tumbles over the rocks

while the winged stallion, Pegasus, oversees the flow.

There is a turtle with a fairy on its back, both looking in the same direction as Pegasus.

Not too far away, a whale emerges from the water.

Dedicated to all nymphs, the aptly named nymphaneum seems to be guarded by a lion with a ball under his paw.

In front of it, there is a dormant fountain with dolphins each end

with Jupiter and Venus standing by.

Seven obelisks topped with sculpted heads form the audience at the theatre,

not far from the leaning house. One of the first constructions of the garden, it is thought to have been built at the request of Giulia.

We pass statues of Ceres, Roman goddess of agriculture and Neptune, Roman god of the sea.

An elephant carrying a castle appears, a symbol of strength and restraint, with a wounded or dead Roman soldier held in its trunk. 

Another fight is raging around the corner, this time a dog, a lion and a wolf are battling with a dragon. Three against one just doesn’t seem fair.

The Mouth of Hell, the Orc, the Ogre, whichever name you choose, it is nonetheless disturbing. The inscription on the top lip translates as, “all thoughts fly”. There is a picnic bench inside, not a very inviting setting in which to dine.

The Etruscan bench has a very well preserved inscription, “You who have travelled the world wishing to see great and stupendous marvels, come here, where there are horrendous faces, elephants, lions, bears, orcs and dragons”. Who can argue with that?

Continuing up some steps,

we come to the Hippodrome Garden, the perimeter is decorated with large pinecones and acorns.

At the near end, there is a bench surmounted by a female figure with a bifurcated fish tail

while the three-headed dog, Cerberus stands guard nearby.

At the far end are two bears, one carrying the family coat of arms and the other, a Roman rose.

On the other side sits Echidna, the half-woman half-snake (mother of Cerberus) and Fury, the female winged creature with a dragon’s tail and claws with a pair of lions separating the two.

The Rotonda is a circular fountain at the top of a staircase leading to the Tempietto.

The ‘small temple’ was the last construction of the garden as a memorial to Giulia, a symbol of her constancy, having remained faithful to her husband when he was absent at war. The ceiling is decorated with lilies, symbol of the Farnese family and roses, symbol of the Orsini family. Giancarlo and Tina Bettini, who restored the garden in 1952, are buried in the Tempietto.

Stunned, shocked and amazed, with Palazzo Orsini in our sights, we returned to the car to seek lunch in Bomarzo.

Kings Domain

After a couple of hours absorbing the exhibitions at the NGV, we made the most of the winter sunshine with a stroll through Kings Domain. Established in 1854, the mix of deciduous and evergreen trees, both native and non-native, in the 36 hectare parkland renders a beautiful autumn aesthetic.

Myriad memorial statues and sculptures are scattered throughout the Domain making for a very interesting amble. The Walker Fountain was donated in 1981 by former City of Melbourne Mayor, Ron Walker and his wife, Barbara. With 46 underwater lights and 144 individual streams of water, I imagine it would be a spectacular vision at night.

The parks namesake, King George V, is memorialised with a lofty bronze, granite and sandstone sculpture. Following his death in 1936, a public appeal was launched to secure funds for the memorial, however, World War II delayed the construction and it wasn’t unveiled until 1952. A statue of the late King in full Garter Robes, wearing the Imperial Crown and holding the ceremonial sceptre and orb, stands on the eastern side. Because the sun was in its descent, I have captured the western face and the statue representing Maternal Britannia holding a cross and olive branch in her hands, symbolic of love and peace. The two children represent the Dominions and Colonies under British rule, while a lion and unicorn holding armorial shields flank the base.

Arriving in Victoria in 1899, Russian immigrant Sidney Myer is probably best known for his successful retail businesses. He was also a violinist with a passion for music and initiated a series of free open air concerts in the Botanic Gardens with the Melbourne Symphony Orchestra in 1929. He had expressed a wish for these concerts to continue and, following his death in 1934, the Sidney Myer Charitable Trust funded the design and construction of the Sidney Myer Music Bowl. Opened in 1959 by prime minister Robert Menzies, the venue holds the record for the largest crowd ever at a concert event in Australia when 200,000 people attended the 1967 Seekers homecoming concert. Officially, there is fixed seating for around 2,000 people and the surrounding lawn area can accommodate a further 10,000.

On this day there was an audience of one, a slender young woman seemingly captivated by the music. Miraggio, also known as Seated Figure, by Pino Conte was donated by an anonymous ‘Lover of Italy’ in 1964 and was installed following re-landscaping of the site in 2001.

Through the trees, sleek glass edifices tower paradoxically with the elegant belvedere tower of Government House.

The Seeds of Friendship sculpture was installed to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Gallipoli landings in 2015. Two hand-carved granite seed cones, a pine from Turkey and a casuarina from Australia, represent the fallen, the seeds of friendship and the future. The filigreed stainless steel wreath is designed for placing remembrance poppies of which a few knitted perennials are scattered around.

The Shrine of Remembrance is an astounding structure, originally built to honour the men and women of Victoria who served in World War I, it is now a memorial to all Australians who have served in any war. The design is the winning entry of a competition in 1922, won by two Melbourne returned-soldier architects, Philip Hudson and James Wardrop. Controversy ensued and the seven year construction finally began in 1927.

Other memorials have been added to the site since the opening in 1934, including the Second World War Memorial Forecourt. The carving atop the Cenotaph depicts six men in the uniforms of the Navy, Army and Air Force carrying a dead comrade draped in the Australian flag. At the base, the Eternal Flame, symbolising eternal life, was lit by Queen Elizabeth II at the dedication of the Forecourt in 1954.

Two replica statues, entitled “The Driver” and “Wipers” were relocated from the front of the State Library to the Shrine grounds in 1998. They commemorate the thousands of Australian lives lost during the fighting at Ypres (‘wipers’ was the way Australian and British servicemen pronounced Ypres during World War I).

We had both spent time inside the Shrine on previous occasions, a remarkable place to visit. Too soon to return cityside,

we continued our trajectory to the Royal Botanic Gardens. Entering the gate adjacent to the Melbourne Observatory,

we hadn’t gone far when, in true Melbourne style, the heavens opened in spectacular fashion. Leaving the lovely autumn hues to their dousing, we retreated to the comfort of a beverage on Southbank.